HPV infection, abnormal anal Pap smear, anal dysplasia and anal cancer Abnormal anal pap smears, anal dysplasia and anal cancer are all caused by human papilloma virus HPV. What is human papilloma virus HPV? HPV is a common virus which can be transmitted sexually. There are over types of HPV. What is anal dysplasia?
Understand how Anal Cancer is Staged and Graded | CTCA
Anal cancer is a rare malignancy with approximately 5, new cases diagnosed annually in the United States. As a result of carefully conducted epidemiologic and clinical studies, it is now established that anal cancer is closely associated with human papillomavirus HPV infection. The cure of anal cancer is possible in the majority of patients with preservation of the anal sphincter. This malignancy has been historically treated by abdominoperineal resection, with associated high rates of morbidity and local recurrence. Pioneering work by Nigro a surgeon led to the discovery that radiation therapy combined with the drugs 5-fluorouracil 5-FU and mitomycin resulted in high rates of local control, disease-free, colostomy-free and overall survival without surgical intervention. Subsequent randomized trials Table I from Europe and the United States have shown the superiority of the combination of radiation therapy, 5-FU and mitomycin over a radiation therapy alone, b radiation therapy with 5-FU only and c a neoadjuvant approach of cisplatin or 5-FU alone followed by concurrent radiation, cisplatin and 5-FU discussed below. Recent advances in anal cancer therapy include the integration of PET scanning into staging, radiation treatment planning and disease monitoring, as well as the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT.
Surgical or pathological staging if surgery has been performed is done by examining tissue. The TNM staging system examines three key factors to determine the stage of cancer:. A number or the letter X is assigned to each factor.
The anus is an organ that lies at the end of the digestive tract below the rectum. It consists of two sections: the anal canal and the anus or anal verge. The anal canal is a cm long structure that lies between the anal sphincter one of the muscles that controls bowel movements just below the rectum and the anal verge which represents the transition point between the digestive tract and the skin on the outside of the body. Muscles within the anal canal and anus control the passage of stool from the rectum to outside the body.